3. Describe the functions of the three branches of the U.S. federal government. 3.1 Describe how the three branches of government contribute to the formation, implementation,
and evaluation of U.S. domestic policy.
6. Indicate the ways citizens and interest groups can influence politics and public policy. 6.1 Explain how citizens and interest groups impact the development of U.S. domestic and foreign
7. Describe the impact of media on public opinion and politics. 7.1 Discuss the chief ways that the media can influence the development, implementation, and
evaluation of U.S. domestic and foreign policy.
Course/Unit Learning Outcomes
3.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 16, pp. 589–620 Unit VIII Final Project
Unit Lesson Chapter 16, pp. 589–620 Chapter 17, pp. 627–654 Unit VIII Final Project
Unit Lesson Chapter 16, pp. 589–620 Chapter 17, pp. 627–654 Unit VIII Final Project
Required Unit Resources In order to access the following resources, click the links below. Throughout this course, you will be provided with sections of text from the online textbook American Government 2e. You may be tested on your knowledge and understanding of the material presented in the textbook as well as the information presented in the unit lesson. Chapter 16: Domestic Policy, pp. 589–620 Chapter 17: Foreign Policy, pp. 627–654
Unit Lesson Politics, at its core, addresses the following questions: Who gets what? How much do they get? When do they get it? Public policy is the political instrument through which we answer these questions. Public policy is defined as “the broad strategy government uses to do its job; the relatively stable set of purposive governmental behaviors that address matters of concern to some part of society” (Krutz, 2019, p. 590). Public policies, both domestic and foreign, typically result from considerable debate and compromise among a
UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE
Domestic and Foreign Policy
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mixture of influences, ranging from the president, Congress, and the courts, to political parties, interest groups, the media, and citizens. In this unit, we discuss both U.S. domestic policy and U.S. foreign policy. This unit has four main sections and several subsections, which are listed below.
1. Section I: Introduction to U.S. Public Policy 2. Section II: U.S. Domestic Policy: Benefits, Goals, and Policy Areas 3. Section III: U.S. Foreign Policy: Goals, Policy Areas, and Instruments of Implementation 4. Section IV: The Policy-Making Process for Domestic and Foreign Policy
In Section I, public policy is introduced and defined. Section II examines U.S. domestic policy in terms of the resources that public policies allocate, general policy goals, and the broad categories of domestic policy. In Section III, U.S. foreign policy is discussed, along with the instruments used to advance these policies, the goals of foreign policy, and several key categories of these policy areas. Section IV explains the central steps in the policy-making process for domestic and foreign policies, explains who the key players are, and presents challenges facing policy implementation. This section also includes a brief case study on nuclear energy that is woven throughout each step of the policy- making process to illustrate a real-world example of policy-making.
Section I: Introduction to U.S. Public Policy Public policy refers to a system of laws, regulatory measures, directives, courses of action, and funding priorities that focus on a specific issue or group of related issues that have been established by a governmental entity or entities. Sources of Public Policy In the United States, Congress and the president enact laws and create public policies. They also allocate resources and identify which area of bureaucracy will implement these laws and public policies. Before starting the discussion of public policy, it is important to clarify the meaning of public policy and to distinguish it from law. A law is a directive from the legislative and executive branches, interpreted by the judicial branch, which mandates a specific course of action on a given topic. Laws are nondiscretionary, meaning that they are directives that must be followed. If laws are not followed, criminal or civil penalties are imposed (Kreis & Christensen, 2013). Public policies, both domestic and foreign, develop as a reaction to a public problem. The problem may be broad and complex, impacting a large segment of the country’s population, or the problem may be narrow and fairly straightforward, effecting a relatively small percentage of citizens. At the federal level, public policies can originate from several sources, including presidential initiatives, congressional legislation, judicial mandates, international agreements, or a combination of these sources. In addition, bureaucracies, political parties, interest groups (both national and foreign), state and local governments, and foreign countries also influence the public policy process from its initiation to its implementation. As discussed in the policy-making section that follows, the sources of public policies can
The president and his Cabinet are an important starting point for U.S. public policies. (Executive Office of the President of the United States, n.d.)
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develop as a result of a long-term issue that has been discussed and debated in the political arena, in the media, by interest groups and political parties, and by citizens for years. These issues tend to be broad and complex, such as civil rights and global warming. Other sources of public policy, both domestic and foreign, are immediate and narrow, often requiring a quick reaction by policy makers. These might include public health crises and specific natural disasters. The outcomes of most public policies result from much debate, many compromises, and numerous policy refinements that occur over years or as brief as a few weeks. Domestic and foreign policies are comprised of a complex set of governmental decisions and actions that aim at specific outcomes. However, unlike laws and other political decisions, public policy implementation can be discretionary in nature. In defining public policy, there are four key features. They are purposive, include a compilation of political decisions, have defined outcomes, and can be discretionary in nature.
Section II: Domestic Policy: Benefits, Goals and Categories
Domestic policy refers to an area of public policy that includes a broad and varied range of governmental programs and regulations that directly affect those living within the United States. U.S. domestic policies typically reflect our history, culture, values, and attitudes about our social, political, and economic conditions and goals. Types of Benefits Distributed by Domestic Policy A chief purpose of domestic policy in the United States is the distribution of services, resources, and commodities that are necessary to fulfill the needs and wants of citizens and to ensure the stability of civil society. Collectively, these are known as goods. In general, goods can be divided into four categories based on whether people can be prevented from using or consuming them (excludability) and whether individuals can use or consume them without affecting their availability to other individuals (exclusivity, sometimes known as rivalousness). Private goods refer to those services and commodities that are owned by a particular individual or group of individuals and are exclusive and competitive in that ownership. They can be transferred to other persons or groups and are finite (can be used up). An artist and a farmer may want to sell their goods to others who want them, and since there is limited supply of artwork and farm produce and because both are wanted or needed,
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others may want to buy them before the supplies dwindle (Krutz, 2019). Examples include houses, food, artwork, and clothing. Public goods, on the other hand, are not excludable and are often infinite. Individuals cannot be effectively excluded from using them, and they are nonexclusive in that use by one individual does not reduce the good’s availability to others. Moreover, public goods are distributed to everyone regardless of how much they contribute to the benefit. Examples of public goods include clean air, public libraries, public education, and street lights. Public goods may give rise to the free-rider problem. A free rider is a person who receives the benefit of a good but does not contribute to its achievement. This can lead to the free-rider problem where there are insufficient levels of certain goods or services due to an insufficient number of people supporting the good (Krutz, 2019). Common goods are not excludable but can be finite. They are also exclusive in that when they are used by one person, a group, or a segment of society, the use can be exclusive. Examples include forests, water, and fisheries. Because they are non-excludable and finite, these goods can be overused, leading to what was called the tragedy of the commons, which was termed by Garrett Hardin (1968).
In order to access the following video, click the link below. To learn more about the tragedy of the commons, watch the video The Tragedy of the Commons | How to Avoid It?. A transcript is available once you access the video.
In order to access the following activity, click the link below. Test yourself to see if you can answer a few questions about common goods. The quiz is optional and does not factor into your course grade. Check Your Knowledge: The Tragedy of Commons Click here to access the PDF version of Check Your Knowledge: The Tragedy of Commons.
Club goods are excludable but nonexclusive. This type of good often requires a membership payment to participate in the benefit. Membership is exclusive in that only members can enjoy the benefits. However, once membership is achieved, there is no exclusivity within the membership. Nonpayers can be prevented from having access to the goods. Cable television, the use of private parks, and toll roads are examples (Ostrom & Ostrom, 1977). Goals of Domestic Policy While the United States, policy makers, and citizens identify numerous goals of domestic policy, there are three broad categories of domestic policy objectives, which are listed below.
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Building and maintaining a healthy and growing economy: This goal includes domestic policies related to trade, fiscal, business development, agriculture, safe working conditions, and a viable infrastructure.
Providing for the well-being of citizens and the environments in which they live: General welfare policies aim at ensuring adequate health care, human services, urban development, and education; they also aim to protect and judiciously use the natural environment and public lands.
Public protection and the administration of justice: This goal centers on protecting the United States, its citizens, and U.S. interests from internal and external threats.
These broad policy goals help to determine the allocation of public, common, and club goods, along with some private goods. These determinations are made by policy makers, including Congress, the president, bureaucracies, and state- and local-level policy makers; decisions are also made in order to enforce federal laws and the Constitution and to ensure the rights of citizens. The courts are influenced by citizens, interest groups, political parties, and the media. In making decisions about the distribution of services, resources, and commodities, two general questions are considered, which are listed below.
1. Who pays the costs of creating and maintaining the goods? 2. Who receives the benefits of the goods?
When private goods and some club goods are bought and sold in a marketplace, the costs and benefits go to the participants in the transaction. Your local grocery store benefits from the money you pay for food, and you
benefit from being able to consume the food you purchased. Unlike private goods, public goods, common goods, and even some club goods are not controlled by private owners. This means that it is up to public policy makers to make decisions about who benefits from these goods and who pays for them. Public policies pursue goals that are distributive, redistributive, and regulatory in nature. Distributive polices collect from many to benefit the few. Redistributive policies share the wealth and goods of some segments of society with other groups. Regulatory policies focus costs on one group while benefitting larger society.
The U.S. Energy Department sponsors projects to make solar power more accessible and affordable. (Nakamura, n.d.)
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Categories of U.S. Domestic Policy Domestic policies are often divided into more specific categories based on the policy area and goals. In each of these policy areas, the U.S. Congress and the president play a prominent role in the policy-making process. In addition, there are other key governmental players from the various bureaucratic agencies that are included in the following list of domestic policy areas.
1. Social welfare and education: Social welfare programs provide vulnerable populations in society assistance including Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare. Education policies focus on ensuring that all citizens have access to educational opportunities. Key governmental players are the Social Security Administration (SSA), the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and the Department of Education.
2. Science, technology, and public health: Advancing scientific, technological, and medical research is a key domestic policy area. These programs involve exploring space, developing and deploying artificial intelligence technologies, and ensuring public health. Key governmental players are the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
3. Energy and the environment: These types of public policies aim at advancing and securing U.S. energy resources and the country’s natural resources. Policies address management and development of established and alternative energy sources, natural resource, public lands, pollutants and toxins that threaten human and environmental health. Key governmental players are the DOE, Department of Natural Resources, USDA, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Department of Interior.
4. Homeland Security: These policies concern the safety and security of the United States—its citizens, economy, and infrastructure such as intelligence gathering, communications surveillance and censorship, support for first responders, immigration, and domestic terrorism. Key governmental players are the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Department of Defense (DoD), and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
5. Business: The federal government oversees numerous segments of the economy aimed at ensuring fair business practices, ensuring consumer protections, and regulating markets. Key governmental players are the Department of Commerce and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
6. Fiscal: U.S. fiscal policy includes regulating interest rates, developing and administering the federal tax code, and overseeing the federal budget and the country’s money supply. Key governmental players are the Federal Reserve Board and Treasury Department.
In order to access the following activity, click the link below. Stop at this point, and take a quick assessment to review what you know. This quiz is optional and is not calculated into your course grade. Check Your Knowledge: U.S. Domestic Policy Click here to view a PDF version of Check Your Knowledge: U.S. Domestic Policy.
Section III: U.S. Foreign Policy: Instruments, Goals, and Categories
Foreign policy is the area of public policy that focuses on how the United States interacts with foreign countries in pursuit of specific or broad interests or those of our allies. Foreign policy includes various goals within broad policy areas. Moreover, the United States pursues these objectives through specific instruments tailored for foreign policy.
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Over the years, the U.S. approach to foreign policy has alternated between periods of isolationism and internationalism. Isolationism refers to periods when the United States minimized its participation on the global stage. Internationalism is an approach to foreign policy in which the United States is actively engaged in world affairs by working with other nations and international organizations to achieve its goals. U.S. foreign policy goals can be grouped into four general categories: security, trade, peace, and human rights/democracy. Foreign Policy Goals In each of these policy areas, the U.S. Congress and the president play a prominent role in the policy-making process. In addition, there are other key governmental players from the various bureaucratic agencies that are included in the list of domestic policy areas, which are provided below.
Security of the United States Against External Threats The United States seeks to protect itself and its interests from external threats and its interests and assets abroad. In addition, the U.S. security policies aim at supporting U.S. allies and their interests. An aspect of the security goal is the pursuit of global peace. The United States aims to achieve global peace through various foreign policy initiatives, many focusing on the establishment and preservation of a balance of power. Balance of power refers to the condition in which countries are of sufficiently equal power such that they can rely on their own resources or rely on alliances to sufficiently mobilize a successful defense if attacked by another country (Walt, 2017). While there is not—and likely never will be—a pure global balance of power, the United States seeks peace by working to establish and maintain stable political, economic, and social systems across the world. Economic Prosperity This goal works to ensure that the United States is able to acquire the goods and resources it needs and to trade U.S. goods and resources on the international market. U.S. trade goals have ranged from protectionism to free trade. Protectionism refers to trade policies that restrict other countries from selling their goods and resources in the U.S. market. Free trade means that the United States places few restrictions on the flow of goods and resources from other countries in the U.S. marketplace. But overall, the United States seeks a balance of trade, which is a condition in which the level of exports from the United States into foreign markets is roughly equivalent to the level of imports that the United States brings into the country. For many years, the
President Donald Trump visits foreign countries to help build coalitions to advance global peace and prosperity. (The White House, n.d.)
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United States has maintained substantial trade imbalances or a trade deficit. In 2018, the U.S. trade deficit was just over $890 billion (Scott, 2019). Promoting Humanitarian Objectives Another U.S. foreign policy objective is the protection of human rights and providing humanitarian assistance to countries in need. Human rights were championed as early as the 1970s under President Jimmy Carter and have continued to be of importance (Cohen, 2018). Categories of U.S. Foreign Policy U.S. foreign policies can be classified into several policy areas. While they are not always mutually exclusive and often share instruments of implementation, these categories cover a broad range of foreign policies pursued by U.S. policy makers. Defense Policy Defense policies focus on security for the United States from external threats, including terrorism. Many U.S. defense policies extend to working to ensure the security of U.S. allies and their interests as well. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies sought peace through a policy goal known as mutual assured destruction (MAD). This approach to peace was accomplished by deterring massive-scale war. Each major country developed and stockpiled sufficiently advanced nuclear and biological weaponry to assure their mutual destruction. Later, during the Cold War, U.S. foreign policy focused more on containing the threat of nuclear war and MAD. This policy was known as containment. Unlike during the Cold War when U.S. adversaries were recognized states, today’s adversaries are often nongovernmental entities, such as Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). This has posed new challenges for policy makers, including the more prevalent use of limited military actions, enhanced intelligence-gathering mechanisms, and improved treatment of political/military prisoners. These key governmental players are the DoD, the Department of State, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and DOE (nuclear weapons). International Trade Policy International trade involves economic transactions made between countries. These include various consumer goods such as television and clothing, capital goods including machinery, and raw materials and food. Private banks and U.S. central banks can be involved in facilitating transactions for these goods and other services. Over the years, the United States has pursued politics ranging from protectionism to free trade. As aforementioned, protectionism refers to policies that impose high tariffs on imported goods to limit foreign goods in U.S. markets. At the other end of the spectrum is free trade, which allows for an unlimited flow of goods and services between the United States and other countries, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (Krutz, 2019). These key governmental players are the Department of Commerce, Department of State, USDA, U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC), and U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA). Human Rights The United States pursues foreign policies that advocate for human rights around the globe. The United States often partners with international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) to pursue international human rights. Some examples include efforts to end human trafficking, genocide, and child labor. The key governmental players are the Department of State, Department of Justice (DOJ), Department of Labor, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). In order to access the following podcast, click the link below.
Listen to the podcast Human Rights and Foreign Policy with Dr. Sarah Snyder. You will need to scroll down to find the podcast recording in the middle of the article. The transcript for the podcast Human Rights and Foreign Policy is also available.
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Global Environmental Protection Policy Global warming, carbon-intensive economies, global toxification, rising seas, species extinction, nuclear proliferation, and environmental racism are all concerns for U.S. global environmental policy. This area of foreign policy addresses urgent and long-term cross-border challenges facing not only the United States but most countries in the world today. The key governmental players are the DOE, NRC, EPA, and Department of Interior. Nonproliferation Policy While not as visible as it was 2 decades ago, nuclear nonproliferation continues to be an important foreign policy area for the United States. In an effort to ensure the safety of the United States and its allies, policies that aim at containing or eliminating nuclear weapons, especially in Russia, North Korea, and Iran, as well as India and Pakistan, retain an important place in U.S. foreign policy (Miller & Narang, 2019). The key governmental players are the DoD, Department of State, DOE, and NRC. Instruments of U.S. Foreign Policy The chief function of U.S. foreign policy is the allocation of resources and instruments necessary to facilitate interactions with foreign countries and the defense of U.S. interests in a global environment. Resources needed for foreign policy include, but are not limited to, military and diplomatic personnel, intelligence, weapons systems, research and development, and funding. The instruments of foreign policy are equally important and are often less visible. They include treaties and other international agreements, diplomacy, sanctions, foreign aid, and defense mechanisms and strategies.
Instruments of Foreign Policy
Appointment of personnel A key way that presidents influence foreign policy is through the
appointment process. Presidents have the constitutional authority to appoint high-ranking officials to carry out policies. These include diplomatic appointments, such as U.S. ambassadors and the secretary of state, as well as defense related-appointments, including the secretary of defense and director of the CIA.
Diplomacy Diplomatic policies center on the establishment and maintenance of a formal relationship between countries, which focuses on peaceful interactions. These include communications and compromise, treaties, congressional-executive agreements, and international organizations.
Communications and compromise Formal and informal communications between ambassadors and State Department personnel with foreign counterparts.
Treaties Treaties are binding agreements between two or more countries that detail responsibilities and obligations of each party. Treaties can be multilateral security agreements (i.e., treaties involving three or more states), such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), as well as bilateral defense pacts in which the United States and one foreign state enter into a security alliance. U.S. treaties may be negotiated by the president but ratified by the U.S. Senate.
Congressional-executive agreements While congressional-executive agreements are somewhat like treaties, they are a distinct instrument of diplomacy. They are international agreements which are negotiated by the U.S. president and are approved by a simple majority of the House and Senate.
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International organizations To achieve some of its foreign policy objectives, the United States uses international organizations such as the UN and the International Court of Justice (sometimes referred to as the World Court) to help facilitate peaceful interactions with foreign states to reach compromises. When peaceful relations are not possible, the United States works with other types of international organizations, including NATO, to advance its foreign policy goals.
Intelligence As an instrument of foreign policy, intelligence works to inform these policies as well as to implement them. Through various means, the U.S. government and those working for the government collect information that cannot be easily collected by other means.
Foreign aid Foreign aid is used to improve the quality of life of citizens in foreign countries but is also used as an instrument of influence with foreign states. Foreign aid can be offered in various forms and for various purposes. Common types of foreign aid include humanitarian aid for countries with immediate needs, especially food, clean water, medicines, and skilled personnel (e.g., doctors, engineers); economic aid such as loans, grants, and project resources for specific projects (e.g., hospitals, schools); and military aid including weapons, funds to buy arms, or defense contracts (Krutz, 2019). Refer to the article “Rollercoaster US Foreign Aid Spending in Four Charts” to learn more about the countries that have received the most foreign aid between the years 2007–2018. Note: Scroll down to see the Flourish chart. It is the third chart, and it is animated. You can hit the “replay” button at the top of the chart to start it over.
Sanctions Sanctions are a form of political pressure used to encourage foreign states to comply with U.S. objectives. These can take several forms. Diplomatic sanctions are those that limit or remove formal and many types of informal communications between the United States and the target country such as withdrawing the U.S. ambassador from a country, the expulsion of a foreign country’s ambassador and diplomatic personnel from the United States, and closing embassies. Economic sanctions apply various forms of economic pressure on a foreign country such as enforcing trade restrictions and blocking the foreign state’s access to its assets that are held by U.S. institutions. Military sanctions focus on limiting or removing military aid from the target state. Explore the webpage “Sanctions Programs and Country Information” posted on the U.S. Department of the Treasury website to learn more about the active sanctions.
The Headquarters of the UN Secretariat Building in Manhattan, New York (Cadman, 2005)
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Military force A final and often last resort of foreign policy is the use of military force. As the constitutional commander in chief of the military, the U.S. president has the authority to engage in actions involving the military and the use of force; however, the War Powers Resolution limits the president’s ability to send U.S. troops into a hostile environment by requiring the president to notify Congress within 48 hours of the introduction of troops to hostilities or imminent hostilities, and the legislation limits the use of troops to 60 days unless Congress consents to extend the time troops are in the hostile environment (War Powers Resolution, 1988). There are several rationales for the use of force: proactive, punitive, and deterrence. Proactive military engagements are used to actively pursue a foreign policy objective. Punitive actions are reactions to a foreign state’s use of force whether against the United States, U.S. interests, or U.S. allies. The use of force can aim at deterring specific actions of a foreign nation. These actions can include but are not limited to extensive air-based military strikes, the limited or extensive use of ground forces, military coalitions engagements (such as through NATO), and assassinations.
In order to access the following video, click the link below. Watch the video Congressional and Presidential War Powers Under the US Constitution to learn more about how military powers work in the United States: The transcript for the video can be found directly below the video.
In order to access the following activity, click the link below. Stop at this point, and take a quick assessment to review what you know. This quiz is optional and is not calculated into your course grade. Check Your Knowledge: U.S. Foreign Policy Click here to access the PDF version of Check Your Knowledge: U.S. Foreign Policy.
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Section IV: The Policymaking Process for Domestic and Foreign Policy
In order to access the following presentation, click the link below. Access the U.S. Public Policy presentation to learn more about the policy making process. A PDF version of the U.S. Public Policy presentation is also available.
References Cadman, S. (2005). The headquarters of the United Nations’ Secretariat Building [Photograph].
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_United_Nations_Secretariat_Building.jpg Cohen, R. (2008). Integrating human rights in US foreign policy: The history, the challenge, and the criteria for
an effective policy. The Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/wp- content/uploads/2016/06/04_human_rights_cohen.pdf
Executive Office of the President of the United States. (n.d.). President Donald Trump and his Cabinet
[Photograph]. https://mavenroundtable.io/theintellectualist/news/two-cabinet-officials-were-open-to- rosenstein-s-plan-to-remove-trump-from-office-351PgDAj3E66Lja6xCYTIg
Germanovich, Y. (n.d.). Simple video camera vector icon [Photograph]. https://www.dreamstime.com/simple-
video-camera-flat-pictogram-icon-vector-image138944656 Hardin, G. (1968). Tragedy of the commons. Science, 162(3859), 1243–1248. Kreis, A. M., & Christensen, R. K. (2013, April). Law and public policy. Policy Studies Journal, 41, S38–S52.
Krutz, G. (2019, February 21). American government 2e (S. Waskiewicz, Ed.). OpenStax.
https://openstax.org/details/books/american-government-2e Miller, N. L., & Narang, V. (2019, December 30). Is a new nuclear age upon us? Why we may look back on
2019 as the point of no return. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2019-12- 30/new-nuclear-age-upon-us
Nakamura, U. (n.d.). Solar power panels [Photograph]. https://www.dreamstime.com/solar-power-panels-
Ostrom, V., & Ostrom, E. (1977). Public goods and public choices. In E. S. Savas (Ed.), Alternatives for
delivering public services: Toward improved performance. Westview. Scott, R. E. (2019, March 7). Record U.S. trade deficit in 2018 reflects failure of Trump’s trade policies.
Economic Policy Institute. https://www.epi.org/blog/record-u-s-trade-deficit-in-2018-reflects-failure-of- trumps-trade-policies/
Walt, S. M. (2017, December 8). Who’s afraid of a balance of power? Foreign Policy.
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War Powers Resolution, 50 U.S.C. § 1541 (Suppl. 5 1988). https://www.loc.gov/item/uscode1988-056050033/ The White House. (n.d.). Foreign policy [Photograph]. https://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/foreign-policy/
Suggested Unit Resources In order to access the following resource, click the link below. This article examines the connections between U.S. public policy and law. It provides timely illustrations of these important interactions. Kreis, A. M., & Christensen, R. K. (2013, April). Law and public policy. Policy Studies Journal, 41, S38–S52.
Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Review In order to check your understanding of the materials presented in this unit, you are encouraged to complete the following exercises that can be found at the end of Chapter 16 and Chapter 17. Once you have completed the activities, check your answers using the Answer Key. Chapter 16: Review Questions, pp. 623–624 Chapter 16: Critical Thinking Questions, p. 624 Chapter 17: Review Questions, pp. 657–658 Chapter 17: Critical Thinking Questions, p. 658